Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 May 14;99(10):6802-5.

Genome-wide identification of tissue-specific enhancers in the Ciona tadpole.

Author information

  • 1Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics and Development, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


Less than 100 cis-regulatory DNAs have been characterized in the context of transgenic metazoan embryos. Here we investigate the feasibility of conducting a genome-wide search for tissue-specific enhancers in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. A total of 138 random genomic DNA fragments with an average size of 1.7 kb were separately placed 5' of a lacZ reporter gene. Eleven of the lacZ fusion genes displayed localized patterns of expression in tadpole-stage Ciona embryos. At least five of these transgenes appear to contain bona fide tissue-specific enhancers that direct expression in the cerebral vesicle, neural tube, primordial adhesive organ, notochord, and tail epidermis. One of the enhancers maps near Distalless (Ci-Dll-A) and recapitulates most aspects of the endogenous expression pattern, including localized expression in the anterior-most regions of the neurogenic ectoderm. We discuss the prospects of creating a regulatory atlas of the Ciona genome, whereby every enhancer is identified for every gene.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk