Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Clin Pathol. 2000 Nov;114 Suppl:S59-67.

The cytologic diagnosis of low-grade transitional cell carcinoma.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City 52242, USA.


Current theory suggests that transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) occurs as either of 2 disease processes, each of which has a distinct cytologic appearance and clinical course: low-grade and high-grade TCC. Urinary cytology has become a mainstay technique for monitoring disease recurrence in patients with TCC. Most cases of high-grade TCC can be diagnosed accurately in urinary cytology specimens. However, the cytologic diagnosis of low-grade TCC is difficult; these tumors exhibit subtle cytomorphologic alterations that are difficult to distinguish from benign or reactive processes. The cytologic criteria most useful for diagnosing low-grade TCC in urinary cytology specimens are reviewed. Additionally, the discussion includes some of the new ancillary tests that are emerging as possible diagnostic aids for the detection of low-grade urothelial neoplasms.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk