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Am J Emerg Med. 2002 May;20(3):139-43.

Parenteral analgesic and sedative use among ED patients in the United States: combined results from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) 1992-1997.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Erratum in

  • Am J Emerg Med 2002 Sep;20(5):496.


This article describes parenteral analgesic and sedative (PAS) use among patients treated in US emergency departments (EDs). Data representing 6 consecutive years (1992-1997) from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) were combined and analyzed. Patients were identified as having received PAS if they received fentanyl, ketamine, meperidine, methohexital, midazolam, morphine, nitrous oxide, or propofol. Patients were stratified according to age (pediatric <18 yrs), race, sex, insurance, type of hospital, urgency of visit, and ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision) diagnostic codes. Logistic regression was performed to determine independent associations and calculate odds ratios (OR) for receiving analgesia or sedation. A total of 43,725 pediatric and 114,207 adult ED encounters were analyzed and represented a weighted sample of 555.3 million ED visits. For patients with orthopedic fractures, African-American children covered by Medicaid insurance were the least likely to receive PAS (OR 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.6). These results suggest that variations may be occurring among ED patients receiving PAS.

Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved).

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