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Spreading and shortest paths in systems with sparse long-range connections.

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  • Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, CEP 24210-340, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

Abstract

Spreading according to simple rules (e.g., of fire or diseases) and shortest-path distances are studied on d-dimensional systems with a small density p per site of long-range connections ("small-world" lattices). The volume V(t) covered by the spreading quantity on an infinite system is exactly calculated in all dimensions as a function of time t. From this, the average shortest-path distance l(r) can be calculated as a function of Euclidean distance r. It is found that l(r) approximately r for r<r(c)=[2p Gamma(d)(d-1)!](-1/d) log(2p Gamma(d)L(d)) and l(r) approximately r(c) for r>r(c). The characteristic length r(c), which governs the behavior of shortest-path lengths, diverges logarithmically with L for all p>0.

PMID:
11970610
[PubMed]
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