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Curr Opin Urol. 2002 May;12(3):209-15.

Simulators and endourological training.

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  • 1Urology Department, UMC St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.


Acquisition of skills laboratory training seems to be of importance in the training of surgeons, and is intended to cover the gap between theoretical learning and real practice. Economic and ethical reasons limit the use of animals during the learning process, while trends in medical change have severely restricted the available time to teach and to learn. With the incorporation of laparoscopy and the blossoming of minimally invasive techniques, mainly endoscopy, simulators have gained wide acceptance as an important tool in the surgeon's learning process. Two types of simulators are currently available: inanimates or mannequins and virtual reality simulators. A review of the recent literature shows that there is generally a significant improvement in dexterity after using simulators, whichever type is used. It is still unknown whether training simulation influences the patient's outcome positively.

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