Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Bacteriol. 2002 May;184(9):2500-20.

Bacillus subtilis functional genomics: global characterization of the stringent response by proteome and transcriptome analysis.

Author information

  • 1Institut für Mikrobiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.


The stringent response in Bacillus subtilis was characterized by using proteome and transcriptome approaches. Comparison of protein synthesis patterns of wild-type and relA mutant cells cultivated under conditions which provoke the stringent response revealed significant differences. According to their altered synthesis patterns in response to DL-norvaline, proteins were assigned to four distinct classes: (i) negative stringent control, i.e., strongly decreased protein synthesis in the wild type but not in the relA mutant (e.g., r-proteins); (ii) positive stringent control, i.e., induction of protein synthesis in the wild type only (e.g., YvyD and LeuD); (iii) proteins that were induced independently of RelA (e.g., YjcI); and (iv) proteins downregulated independently of RelA (e.g., glycolytic enzymes). Transcriptome studies based on DNA macroarray techniques were used to complement the proteome data, resulting in comparable induction and repression patterns of almost all corresponding genes. However, a comparison of both approaches revealed that only a subset of RelA-dependent genes or proteins was detectable by proteomics, demonstrating that the transcriptome approach allows a more comprehensive global gene expression profile analysis. The present study presents the first comprehensive description of the stringent response of a bacterial species and an almost complete map of protein-encoding genes affected by (p)ppGpp. The negative stringent control concerns reactions typical of growth and reproduction (ribosome synthesis, DNA synthesis, cell wall synthesis, etc.). Negatively controlled unknown y-genes may also code for proteins with a specific function during growth and reproduction (e.g., YlaG). On the other hand, many genes are induced in a RelA-dependent manner, including genes coding for already-known and as-yet-unknown proteins. A passive model is preferred to explain this positive control relying on the redistribution of the RNA polymerase under the influence of (p)ppGpp.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (8)Free text

FIG. 1.
FIG. 2.
FIG. 3.
FIG. 4.
FIG. 5.
FIG. 6.
FIG. 7.
FIG. 8.
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk