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J Comp Pathol. 2002 Feb-Apr;126(2-3):124-36.

Experimental Nipah virus infection in pigs and cats.

Author information

  • 1Australian Animal Health Laboratory, CSIRO Livestock Industries, Geelong 3220, Australia.

Abstract

A human isolate of Nipah virus from an outbreak of febrile encephalitis in Malaysia that coincided with a field outbreak of disease in pigs was used to infect eight 6-week-old pigs orally or subcutaneously and two cats oronasally. In pigs, the virus induced a respiratory and neurological syndrome consistent with that observed in the Malaysian pigs. Not all the pigs showed clinical signs, but Nipah virus was recovered from the nose and oropharynx of both clinically and sub-clinically infected animals. Natural infection of in-contact pigs, which was readily demonstrated, appeared to be acute and self-limiting. Subclinical infections occurred in both inoculated and in-contact pigs. Respiratory and neurological disease was also produced in the cats, with recovery of virus from urine as well as from the oropharynx. The clinical and pathological syndrome induced by Nipah virus in cats was comparable with that associated with Hendra virus infection in this species, except that in fatal infection with Nipah virus there was extensive inflammation of the respiratory epithelium, associated with the presence of viral antigen. Viral shedding via the nasopharynx, as observed in pigs and cats in the present study, was not a regular feature of earlier reports of experimental Hendra virus infection in cats and horses. The findings indicate the possibility of field transmission of Nipah virus between pigs via respiratory and oropharyngeal secretions.

Copyright Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

PMID:
11945001
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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