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Biochemistry. 2002 Apr 16;41(15):4779-88.

Importance of lysine 125 for heparin binding and activation of antithrombin.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Medical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.

Abstract

The anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharide, heparin, binds to the plasma coagulation proteinase inhibitor, antithrombin, and activates it by a conformational change that results in a greatly increased rate of inhibition of target proteinases. Lys125 of antithrombin has previously been implicated in this binding by chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis and by the crystal structure of a complex between antithrombin and a pentasaccharide constituting the antithrombin-binding region of heparin. Replacement of Lys125 with Met or Gln in this work reduced the affinity of antithrombin for full-length heparin or the pentasaccharide by 150-600-fold at I = 0.15, corresponding to a loss of 25-33% of the total binding energy. The affinity decrease was due both to disruption of approximately three ionic interactions, indicating that Lys125 and two other basic residues of antithrombin act cooperatively in binding to heparin, and to weakened nonionic interactions. The mutations caused a 10-17-fold decrease in the affinity of the initial, weak binding step of the two-step mechanism of heparin binding to antithrombin. They also increased the reverse rate constant of the second, conformational change step by 10-50-fold. Lys125 is thus a major heparin-binding residue of antithrombin, contributing an amount of binding energy comparable to that of Arg129, but less energy than Lys114. It is the first residue identified so far that has a critical role in the initial recognition of heparin by antithrombin, but also appreciably stabilizes the heparin-induced activated state of the inhibitor. These effects are exerted by interactions of Lys125 with the nonreducing end of the heparin pentasaccharide.

PMID:
11939772
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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