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J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Mar 27;50(7):1890-6.

Effects of commercial processing on levels of antioxidants in oats (Avena sativa L.).

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  • 1Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7051, SE 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.


The effects of various commercial hydrothermal processes (steaming, autoclaving, and drum drying) on levels of selected oat antioxidants were investigated. Steaming and flaking of dehulled oat groats resulted in moderate losses of tocotrienols, caffeic acid, and the avenanthramide Bp (N-(4'-hydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxy-anthranilic acid), while ferulic acid and vanillin increased. The tocopherols and the avenanthramides Bc (N-(3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxy-anthranilic acid) and Bf (N-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxy-anthranilic acid) were not affected by steaming. Autoclaving of grains (including the hulls) caused increased levels of all tocopherols and tocotrienols analyzed except beta-tocotrienol, which was not affected. Vanillin and ferulic and p-coumaric acids also increased, whereas the avenanthramides decreased, and caffeic acid was almost completely eliminated. Drum drying of steamed rolled oats resulted in an almost complete loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols, as well as a large decrease in total cinnamic acids and avenanthramides. The same process applied to wholemeal made from groats from autoclaved grains resulted in less pronounced losses, especially for the avenanthramides which were not significantly affected.

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