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Development. 2002 Mar;129(5):1119-29.

Grunge, related to human Atrophin-like proteins, has multiple functions in Drosophila development.

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  • 1Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie du Développement, UMR 9943 C.N.R.S.-Université, I.B.D.M. CNRS-INSERM-Université de la Méditerranée, Campus de Luminy Case 907, F-13288 Marseille, Cedex 09, France.


We have carried out a genetic screen designed to isolate regulators of teashirt expression. One of these regulators is the Grunge gene, which encodes a protein with motifs found in human arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeat, Metastasis-associated-like and Atrophin-1 proteins. Grunge is the only Atrophin-like protein in Drosophila, whereas several exist in humans. We provide evidence that Grunge is required for the proper regulation of teashirt but also has multiple activities in fly development. First, Grunge is crucial for correct segmentation during embryogenesis via a failure in the repression of at least four segmentation genes known to regulate teashirt. Second, Grunge acts positively to regulate teashirt expression in proximoventral parts of the leg. Grunge has other regulatory functions in the leg, including the patterning of ventral parts along the entire proximodistal axis and the proper spacing of bristles in all regions.

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