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J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 26;277(17):14976-85. Epub 2002 Feb 12.

Structural requirements within the lipoyl domain for the Ca2+-dependent binding and activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase isoform 1 or its catalytic subunit.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.

Abstract

The inner lipoyl domain (L2) of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) 60-mer forms a Ca(2+)-dependent complex with the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1 (PDP1) or its catalytic subunit, PDP1c, in facilitating large enhancements of the activities of PDP1 (10-fold) or PDP1c (6-fold). L2 binding to PDP1 or PDP1c requires the lipoyl-lysine prosthetic group and specificity residues that distinguish L2 from the other lipoyl domains (L1 in E2 and L3 in the E3-binding component). The L2-surface structure contributing to binding was mapped by comparing the capacities of well folded mutant or lipoyl analog-substituted L2 domains to interfere with E2 activation by competitively binding to PDP1 or PDP1c. Our results reveal the critical importance of a regional set of residues near the lipoyl group and of the octanoyl but not the dithiolane ring structure of the lipoyl group. At the other end of the lipoyl domain, substitution of Glu(182) by alanine or glutamine removed L2 binding to PDP1 or PDP1c, and these substitutions for the neighboring Glu(179) also greatly hindered complex formation (E179A > E179Q). Among 11 substitutions in L2 at sites of major surface residue differences between the L1 and L2 domains, only the conversion of Val-Gln(181) located between the critical Glu(179) and Glu(182) to the aligned Ser-Leu sequence of the L1 domain greatly reduced L2 binding. Certain modified L2 altered E2 activation of PDP1 differently than PDP1c, supporting significant impact of the regulatory PDP1r subunit on PDP1 binding to L2. Our results indicate hydrophobic binding via the extended aliphatic structure of the lipoyl group and required adjacent L2 structure anchor PDP1 by acting in concert with an acidic cluster at the other end of the domain.

PMID:
11842080
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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