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J Lipid Res. 2002 Jan;43(1):2-12.

BAREing it all: the adoption of LXR and FXR and their roles in lipid homeostasis.

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  • 1Departments of Biological Chemistry and Medicine, CHS-33-257, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.


During the last three years there have been a plethora of publications on the liver X-activated receptors (LXRalpha, NR1H3, and LXRbeta, NR1H2), the farnesoid X-activated receptor (FXR, NR1H4), and the pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and the role these nuclear receptors play in controlling cholesterol, bile acid, lipoprotein and drug metabolism. The current interest in these nuclear receptors is high, in part, because they appear to be promising therapeutic targets for new drugs that have the potential to control lipid homeostasis. In this review we emphasize i) the role of LXR in controlling many aspects of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism, ii) the expanded role of FXR in regulating genes that control not only bile acid metabolism but also lipoprotein metabolism, and iii) the regulation of bile acid transport/metabolism in response to bile acid-activated PXR.

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