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Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2002 Jan;13(1):1-16, vii.

Classification issues in malformations caused by abnormalities of cortical development.

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  • 1Porto Alegre Epilepsy Surgery Program, Neurology Service, Faculty of Medicine, and Hospital São Lucas, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.


Malformations caused by abnormalities of cortical development (MCDs) as a group are now widely recognized as a key cause of medically refractory epilepsies, often leading to a consideration of surgical treatment. A practical classification scheme including histopathologic, imaging, and, if possible, clinical-electrographic features of the various different types of MCDs, will be important to the delineation of surgical strategies and anticipation of medical and surgical prognoses. A proposal of such a scheme with emphasis on the focal cortical dysplasias is given in the hopes that it will reopen the debate on the best way to classify these disorders.

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