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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2001 Dec;226(11):1037-44.

High glycemic index carbohydrate diet alters the diurnal rhythm of leptin but not insulin concentrations.

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  • 1Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

Abstract

Morning serum leptin values in humans are inconsistently altered by diet, and the molecular mechanisms controlling the diurnal leptin pattern remain unexplained. We determined whether leptin values after meals or the leptin diurnal pattern was altered by the type of carbohydrate (CHO) ingested in diets containing either 20% or 30% fat. In a randomized, crossover study design, nine healthy lean adults ate one of four isocaloric diets for 8 days. Diets contained 15% protein: A, high glycemic index (GI) CHO, 30% fat; B, low GI CHO, 30% fat; C, high GI CHO, 20% fat; and D, low GI CHO, 20% fat. Serum glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured at intervals on Day 8 for 24 hr, and on Day 9 during an oral glucose tolerance test (GTT). Although the 24-hr glucose and insulin profiles did not differ with the diets, diets A and C altered the serum leptin diurnal pattern. In contrast to the usual evening rise in leptin concentration, which begins after 2200 hr, diets A and C caused a rise in leptin beginning at 1300 hr. The area under the curve for leptin between 1230 and 2400 hr was 17% greater for diets A and C. During the GTT, leptin concentrations were similar for each diet. These results suggest that the pattern and amount of leptin secretion may be altered by high GI CHO or the simple sugar content of the diet, unrelated to differences in insulin concentration, that high GI foods may have little or no effect on serum insulin in the context of a mixed meal, and that a single 0800-hr leptin value may not be sufficient to reveal a diet-induced change in leptin secretion

PMID:
11743140
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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