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Trends Plant Sci. 2001 Dec;6(12):548-50.

From central-peripheral to adaxial-abaxial.

Author information

  • Graduate School of Biological Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101, Japan. m-tasaka@bs.aist-nara.ac.jp


Higher plants are constructed of three organs--the stem, the root and the leaf. The stem and the root have two axes, apical-basal and central-peripheral, which cross orthogonally. Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem as lateral organs that have three different axes, apical-basal, adaxial-abaxial and right-left. Recent data point to the possibility that the adaxial-abaxial axis in the leaf is formed from the central-peripheral axis in the stem.

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