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J Urol. 2001 Dec;166(6):2411-5.

A novel clinical evaluation of childhood incontinence and urinary urgency.

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  • 1Children's Hospital Westmead, Sydney, St. George Hospital, University of New South Wales and School of Physiotherapy, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.



There are few clinic based objective tools for the evaluation of urinary urgency and incontinence in children. We report on the known method of frequency volume chart, and describe 2 new tools to determine their effectiveness and reliability.


The mean and standard deviation values for affected children in each age group from 5 to 12 years were calculated from 321 consecutive frequency volume charts. Two new child-based scoring tools quantifying urinary urgency were developed to measure the sensation of urgency and the intensity of response at urge (visual analog score 1 and 2). These tools were tested for reliability. As the quantification of incontinence is problematic in children, a new system of documenting functional severity of leakage per day was designed (Dry Pie) and also tested for reliability.


Age related mean bladder storage volumes and standard deviations were established for children with incontinence. The novel urgency visual analog measure proved reliable, although only scale 2 would be useful in clinical practice. The incontinence Dry Pie diary was also shown to be reliable for 2 weeks and easily completed at home by the children.


As a result of this study clinic based intervention can include reliable quantification of urinary urgency (visual analog scale 2) and a functional measure of the severity of incontinence (Dry Pie).

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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