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Appl Neuropsychol. 2001;8(3):161-6.

COWAT metanorms across age, education, and gender.

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  • 1Center for Psychological Studies, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314, USA.


Norms for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT; Benton & Hamsher, 1976) have been published as summary statistics from many relatively small samples. The purpose of this study was to combine statistics from these samples to produce metanorms broken down by age, gender, and level of education. Means and standard deviations of letters F, A, and S (FAS) totals from normative samples and samples of normal controls were gathered from a wide variety of research studies and then stringently selected based on factors such as adequacy of the sample and presence of the appropriate statistics. The resulting aggregate statistics for FAS totals suggest differences may exist in verbal fluency task performance, depending on a person 's age, gender, and level of education.

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