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J Cell Sci. 2001 Sep;114(Pt 17):3155-66.

Control of the nuclear-cytoplasmic partitioning of annexin II by a nuclear export signal and by p11 binding.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.


This study investigated mechanisms controlling the nuclear-cytoplasmic partitioning of annexin II (AnxII). AnxII and its ligand, p11, were localized by immunofluorescence to the cytoplasmic compartment of U1242MG cells, with minimal AnxII or p11 detected within nuclei. Similarly, GFP-AnxII and GFP-p11 chimeras localized to the endogenous proteins. Likewise, GFP-AnxII(1-22) was excluded from nuclei, whereas GFP-AnxII(23-338) and GFP alone were distributed throughout the cells. Immunoprecipitation and biochemical studies showed that GFP-AnxII did not form heteromeric complexes with endogenous p11 and AnxII. Thus, the AnxII N-tail is necessary and sufficient to cause nuclear exclusion of the GFP fusion protein but this does not involve p11 binding. A nuclear export signal consensus sequence was found in the AnxII 3-12 region. The consensus mutant GFP-AnxII(L10A/L12A) confirmed that these residues are necessary for nuclear exclusion. The nuclear exclusion of GFP-AnxII(1-22) was temperature-dependent and reversible, and the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LmB) caused GFP-AnxII or overexpressed AnxII monomer to accumulate in nuclei. Therefore, AnxII monomer can enter the nucleus and is actively exported. However, LmB had little effect on the localization of AnxII/p11 complex in U1242MG cells, indicating that the complex is sequestered in the cytoplasm. By contrast, LmB treatment of v-src-transformed fibroblasts caused endogenous AnxII to accumulate in nuclei. The LmB-induced nuclear accumulation of AnxII was accelerated by pervanadate and inhibited by genistein, suggesting that phosphorylation promotes nuclear entry of AnxII. Thus, nuclear exclusion of AnxII results from nuclear export of the monomer and sequestration of AnxII/p11 complex, and may be modulated by phosphorylation.

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