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Biochemistry. 2001 Sep 25;40(38):11344-52.

Role of S65, Q67, I68, and Y69 residues in homotetrameric R67 dihydrofolate reductase.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-0840, USA.

Abstract

R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) shares no sequence or structural homology with chromosomal DHFRs. This enzyme arose recently in response to the clinical use of the antibacterial drug trimethoprim. R67 DHFR is a homotetramer possessing a single active site pore. A high-resolution crystal structure shows the homotetramer possesses exact 222 symmetry [Narayana, N., et al. (1995) Nat. Struct. Biol. 2, 1018-1025]. This symmetry dictates four symmetry-related binding sites must exist for each substrate as well as each cofactor. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies, however, indicate only two molecules bind: either two dihydrofolate molecules, two NADPH molecules, or one substrate and one cofactor [Bradrick, T. D., et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 11414-11424]. The latter is the productive ternary complex. To evaluate the role of S65, Q67, I68, and Y69 residues, located near the center of the active site pore, site-directed mutagenesis was performed. One mutation in the gene creates four mutations per active site pore which typically result in large cumulative effects. Steady state kinetic data indicate the mutants have altered K(m) values for both cofactor and substrate. For example, the Y69F R67 DHFR displays an 8-fold increase in the K(m) for dihydrofolate and a 20-fold increase in the K(m) for NADPH. Residues involved in ligand binding in R67 DHFR display very little, if any, specificity, consistent with their possessing dual roles in binding. These results support a model where R67 DHFR utilizes an unusual "hot spot" binding surface capable of binding both ligands and indicate this enzyme has adopted a novel yet simple approach to catalysis.

PMID:
11560482
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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