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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001 Oct;11(5):533-40.

TGF-beta signalling pathways in early Xenopus development.

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  • 1Laboratory of Developmental Signalling, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, WC2A 3PX, London, UK.


Many different ligands of the TGF-beta superfamily signal in the early Xenopus embryo and are required for the specification and patterning of the three germ layers as well as for gastrulation. Recent advances in the field are helping us understand how ligand activity is regulated both spatially and temporally, the mechanism by which the signals are transduced to the nucleus and how essentially the same signalling pathway can activate completely different sets of genes in different regions of the embryo.

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