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J Chromatogr A. 2001 Jul 27;924(1-2):523-32.

Characterization of highly sulfated cyclodextrins.

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  • 1Beckman Coulter, Inc., Fullerton, CA 92835, USA.


A class of highly sulfated cyclodextrins (HS-CDs) was developed for enantiomeric separation of chiral compounds by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The HS-CDs were produced by a facile single-step direct sulfation of cyclodextrin using sulfur trioxide-trimethylamine complex in dimethylformamide. Characterization of the HS-CDs by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and by CE using a well-established indirect detection method indicated the species have very narrow heterogeneity in terms of degree of sulfation. Elemental analysis of the HS-alpha-, beta- and gamma-CDs showed that the average sulfate contents were 11, 12, and 13 per CD molecule, respectively. The 13C NMR of HS-CDs is consistent with the structural assignment of nearly complete sulfation at C-6 primary hydroxyl groups and partial sulfation at the C-2 secondary hydroxyls (>70%), while the C-3 hydroxyls remain unsubstituted. Enantiomeric separation by CE using the HS-CDs as chiral selectors showed that HS-alpha-, beta- and gamma-CDs complement each other by exhibiting different chiral selectivities, resulting in resolution of many chiral neutral, acidic and basic compounds of greatly varying structural features. The part of HS-CD that interacts with the guest molecule during complexation and, therefore, the receiving end of the cyclodextrin hydrophobic bucket was surrounded with largely regiospecifically substituted C-2 sulfates and intact C-3 hydroxyls, both at the equatorial positions. Such global regiospecific structural arrangement in HS-CDs provides differential diasteroisomeric complexation is proposed to be the principal contributing factor in the resolving racemates.

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