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Am J Clin Pathol. 2001 Aug;116(2):211-6.

Pathology of autoimmune myelofibrosis. A report of three cases and a review of the literature.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, LAC + USC Medical Center and University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.


We identified 3 patients with autoimmune myelofibrosis (AM) lacking American Rheumatism Association criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They had 1 or 2 cytopenias and lacked serologic evidence for SLE. Autoimmune features included psoriatic arthritis and positive direct Coombs test (DCT) result, DCT-positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and synovitis with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Bone marrow biopsy specimens from each patient were evaluated by routine morphologic and immunohistochemical examination. They demonstrated marked hypercellularity (2 cases) or hypocellularity (1 case), moderate erythroid hyperplasia (all cases) with left-shifted maturation (2 cases), intrasinusoidal hematopoiesis (all cases), slightly to moderately increased megakaryocytes (2 cases), and grade 3 to 4 reticulin fibrosis (all cases). All lacked basophilia, eosinophilia, bizarre megakaryocytes, clusters of megakaryocytes, and osteosclerosis. Mild to moderate bone marrow lymphocytosis was noted in all cases. In 2 cases, increased small T cells and B cells formed nonparatrabecular, loose aggregates. AM is a clinicopathologic entity that may lack features of SLE. Loose aggregates of bone marrow T and B lymphocytes and the absence of morphologic and clinical features of myeloproliferative disease or low-grade lymphoproliferative disease are clues that distinguish AM from better known causes of bone marrow fibrosis.

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