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J Virol. 2001 Sep;75(17):8306-16.

Noncytolytic inhibition of X4 virus by bulk CD8(+) cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons and HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes is not mediated by beta-chemokines.

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  • 1Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediate immunologic selection pressure by both cytolytic and noncytolytic mechanisms. Non cytolytic mechanisms include the release of beta-chemokines blocking entry of R5 HIV-1 strains. In addition, CD8(+) cells inhibit X4 virus isolates via release of as yet poorly characterized soluble factors. To further characterize these factors, we performed detailed analysis of CTL as well as bulk CD8(+) T lymphocytes from six HIV-1-infected individuals and from six HIV-1-seronegative individuals. Kinetic studies revealed that secreted suppressive activities of HIV-1-specific CTL and bulk CD8(+) T lymphocytes from all HIV-1-infected persons are significantly higher than that of supernatants from seronegative controls. The suppressive activity could be blocked by monensin and brefeldin A, was heat labile, and appeared in a pattern different from that of secretion of chemokines (MDC, I-309, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES), cytokines (gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and interleukins (interleukin-13 and interleukin-16). This suppression activity was characterized by molecular size exclusion centrifugation and involves a suppressive activity of >50 kDa which could be bound to heparin and a nonbinding inhibitory activity of <50 kDa. Our data provide a functional link between CD8(+) cells and CTL in the noncytolytic inhibition of HIV-1 and suggest that suppression of X4 virus is mediated through proteins. The sizes of the proteins, their affinity for heparin, and the pattern of release indicate that these molecules are not chemokines.

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