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J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jul 6;63(5):321-50.

Urinary cadmium elimination as a biomarker of exposure for evaluating a cadmium dietary exposure--biokinetics model.

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  • 1National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.


The Cadmium Dietary Exposure Model (CDEM) utilizes national survey data on food cadmium concentrations and food consumption patterns to estimate dietary intakes in the U.S. population. The CDEM has been linked to a modification of the cadmium biokinetic model of Kjellström and Nordlberg (KNM) to derive predictions of kidney and urinary cadmium that reflect U.S. dietary cadmium intake and related variability. Variability in dietary cadmium intake was propagated through the KNM using a Monte Carlo approach. The model predicts a mean peak kidney cadmium burden of approximately 3.5 mg and a 5th-95th percentile range of 2.2-5.1 mg in males. The corresponding peak renal cortex cadmium concentration in males is 15 microg/g wet cortex (10-22, 5th-95th percentile). Predicted kidney cadmium levels in females were higher than males: 5.1 (3.3-7.6) mg total kidney, 29 (19-43) microg/g wet cortex. Predicted urinary cadmium in males and females agreed with empirical estimates based on the NHANES III, with females predicted and observed to excrete approximately twice the amount of cadmium in urine than males. An explanation for the higher urinary cadmium excretion in females is proposed that is consistent with the NHANES III data as well as experimental studies in humans and animals. Females may absorb a larger fraction of ingested dietary cadmium than males, and this difference may be the result of lower iron body stores in females compared to males. This would suggest that females may be at greater risk of developing cadmium toxicity than males. The predicted 5th-95th percentile values for peak kidney cadmium burden are approximately 60% of the peak kidney burden (8-11 mg) predicted for a chronic intake at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) chronic reference dose of 1 microg/kg-d.

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