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Anticancer Drugs. 2001 Jul;12(6):505-11.

Phase I and pharmacologic study of i.v. hydroxyurea infusion given with i.p. 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine and leucovorin.

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  • 11University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.


Preclinical data suggests that the action of fluoropyrimidines may be enhanced by the addition of hydroxyurea. We developed a phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose and pharmacokinetics of i.v. hydroxyurea (HU) in combination with i.p. 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) and leucovorin (LV). Eligible patients had metastatic carcinoma confined mostly to the peritoneal cavity, and adequate hepatic, renal and bone marrow function. Patients were treated with a fixed dose of FUdR (3 g) and LV (640 mg) administered on days 1--3. HU was administered as a 72-h infusion starting simultaneously with i.p. therapy on day 1. The following dose levels were studied: 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.6 g/m(2)/day. Pharmacokinetics were studied in blood and peritoneal fluid. Twenty-eight patients were accrued. Steady-state plasma and peritoneal fluid HU levels increased with increasing dose, and steady state was achieved within 12 h of continuous dosing. The steady-state HU plasma:peritoneal fluid concentration ratio ranged from 1.06 x 10(3) to 1.25 x 10(3) and the plasma HU clearance ranged from 4.63 to 5.81 l/h/m(2). Peritoneal fluid AUC = 137,639 +/- 43,914 microg/ml x min, t(1/2) = 100.9 +/- 56.4 min and Cl = 25.29 +/- 10.88 ml/min. Neutropenia represented the dose-limiting toxicity. We conclude that i.p. FUdR and LV in combination with i.v. HU is well tolerated. The addition of systemic HU increased the incidence of myelosuppression.

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