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J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Mar 21;123(11):2607-17.

Modulating charge separation and charge recombination dynamics in porphyrin-fullerene linked dyads and triads: Marcus-normal versus inverted region.

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  • 1Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


Photoinduced charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) processes have been examined in various porphyrin-fullerene linked systems (i.e., dyads and triads) by means of time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime measurements. The investigated compounds comprise a homologous series of rigidly linked, linear donor-acceptor arrays with different donor-acceptor separations and diversified donor strength: freebase porphyrin-C60 dyad (H2P-C60), zincporphyrin-C60 dyad (ZnP-C60), ferrocene-zincporphyrin-C60 triad (Fc-ZnP-C60), ferrocene-freebase porphyrin-C60 triad (Fc-H2P-C60), and zincporphyrin-freebase porphyrin-C60 triad (ZnP-H2P-C60). Most importantly, the lowest lying charge-separated state of all the investigated systems, namely, that of ferrocenium ion (Fc+) and the C60 radical anion (C60.-) pair in the Fc-ZnP-C60 triad, has been generated with the highest quantum yields (close to unity) and reveals a lifetime as long as 16 micros. Determination of CS and CR rate constants, together with the one-electron redox potentials of the donor and acceptor moieties in different solvents, has allowed us to examine the driving force dependence (-DeltaG0ET) of the electron-transfer rate constants (kET). Hereby, the semilogarithmic plots (i.e., log kET versus -DeltaG0ET) lead to the evaluation of the reorganization energy (lambda) and the electronic coupling matrix element (V) in light of the Marcus theory of electron-transfer reactions: lambda = 0.66 eV and V = 3.9 cm(-1) for ZnP-C60 dyad and lambda = 1.09 eV and V = 0.019 cm(-1) for Fc-ZnP-C60, Fc-H2P-C60, and ZnP-H2P-C60 triads. Interestingly, the Marcus plot in Fc-ZnP-C60, Fc-H2P-C60, and ZnP-H2P-C60 has provided clear evidence for intramolecular CR located in both the normal and inverted regions of the Marcus parabola. The coefficient for the distance dependence of V (damping factor: betaCR = 0.58 A(-1) is deduced which depends primarily on the nature of the bridging molecule.

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