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J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Mar 14;123(10):2213-23.

Electronic structure of bis(o-iminobenzosemiquinonato)metal complexes (Cu, Ni, Pd). The art of establishing physical oxidation states in transition-metal complexes containing radical ligands.

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  • 1Contribution from the Max-Planck-Institut für Strahlenchemie, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany.


The ligand 2-anilino-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol and its 2-(3,5-dichloroanilino)-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol analogue react in CH(3)CN or CH(3)OH solutions with divalent transition metal ions in the presence of air and triethylamine. Depending on the metal:ligand ratio (1:1, 1:2, or 1:3) and the presence (or absence) of the cyclic amine 1,4-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (dmtacn), the following complexes have been isolated as crystalline solids: [Co(III)(L(ISQ))(3)] (1); [Cu(II)(dmtacn)(L(ISQ))]PF(6) (2); [Cu(II)(L(ISQ))(2)] (3); [Ni(II)(L(ISQ))(2)] (4a); [Ni(II)((Cl)L(ISQ))(2)] (4b); [Pd(II)(L(ISQ))(2)] (5). (L(ISQ))(-) represents the monoanionic o-iminobenzosemiquinonate radical (S(rad) = (1)/(2)). Compounds 1-5 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography at 100(2) K. For all complexes it is unambiguously established that the O,N-coordinated o-iminobenzosemiquinonato(1-) ligand is present. Complexes 3, 4b, and 5 are square planar molecules which possess an S(t) = (1)/(2), 0, and 0 ground state, respectively, as was established by (1)H NMR and EPR spectroscopies and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. Complex 2 possesses an S(t) = 1 ground state which is attained via strong intramolecular ferromagnetic coupling (J = +195 cm(-1)) between the d(x)2-(y)2 magnetic orbital of the Cu(II) ion and the pi-orbital of the ligand radical. Complex 1 contains three mutually orthogonal (L(ISQ))(-*) ligands and has an S(t) = (3)/(2) ground state. It is shown that the electronic structure of 4a and 5 is adequately described as singlet diradical containing a divalent, diamagnetic d(8) configurated central metal ion and two strongly antiferromagnetically coupled (L(ISQ))(-) radical ligands. It is concluded that the same electronic structure prevails in the classic bis(o-diiminobenzosemiquinonato)- and bis(o-benzosemiquinonato)metal complexes of Ni(II), Pd(II), and Pt(II). The electrochemistry of all complexes has been investigated in detail. For 3, 4a, and 5 a series of reversible one-electron-transfer waves leads to the formation of the anions and cations [M(L)(2)](2-),(1-),(1+),(2+) which have been characterized spectroelectrochemically. All redox processes are shown to be ligand-based.

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