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Mol Biol Cell. 2001 Jul;12(7):2075-85.

AP-3 mediates tyrosinase but not TRP-1 trafficking in human melanocytes.

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  • 1Section on Human Biochemical Genetics, Heritable Disorders Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Abstract

Patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS-2) have mutations in the beta 3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 (AP-3) and functional deficiency of this complex. AP-3 serves as a coat protein in the formation of new vesicles, including, apparently, the platelet's dense body and the melanocyte's melanosome. We used HPS-2 melanocytes in culture to determine the role of AP-3 in the trafficking of the melanogenic proteins tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). TRP-1 displayed a typical melanosomal pattern in both normal and HPS-2 melanocytes. In contrast, tyrosinase exhibited a melanosomal (i.e., perinuclear and dendritic) pattern in normal cells but only a perinuclear pattern in the HPS-2 melanocytes. In addition, tyrosinase exhibited a normal pattern of expression in HPS-2 melanocytes transfected with a cDNA encoding the beta 3A subunit of the AP-3 complex. This suggests a role for AP-3 in the normal trafficking of tyrosinase to premelanosomes, consistent with the presence of a dileucine recognition signal in the C-terminal portion of the tyrosinase molecule. In the AP-3-deficient cells, tyrosinase was also present in structures resembling late endosomes or multivesicular bodies; these vesicles contained exvaginations devoid of tyrosinase. This suggests that, under normal circumstances, AP-3 may act on multivesicular bodies to form tyrosinase-containing vesicles destined to fuse with premelanosomes. Finally, our studies demonstrate that tyrosinase and TRP-1 use different mechanisms to reach their premelanosomal destination.

PMID:
11452004
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC55657
Free PMC Article
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