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Cytokine. 2001 May 21;14(4):240-2.

Stimulation of TNF-alpha release in monocytes by honey.

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  • 1School of Applied Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Western Ave, Cardiff, CF5 2YB, UK.


Although evidence exists for the antibacterial effects of honey there is limited objective evidence for direct promotion of healing. We investigated the effect of manuka, pasture and an artificial honey on macrophage function. Reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production was assessed by luminol enhanced chemoluminescence and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release was determined by immunoassay. ROI production was significantly (P<0.001) decreased by pasture honey and manuka honey. TNF-alpha release was significantly enhanced (P<0.001) in unprimed MM6 cells by manuka and pasture honey but was not altered in primed cells. These results could explain the suggested therapeutic properties of honey in promoting wound healing.

Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

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