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Anat Histol Embryol. 2001 Jun;30(3):147-51.

Characteristics of dorsal lingual papillae of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan.


The morphology of dorsal lingual papillae of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) was studied by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Filiform and lenticular papillae were considered as mechanical papillae but fungiform and vallate papillae were considered as gustatory papillae. Filiform papillae were distributed mostly in the anterior two-thirds region of the tongue. Each filiform papilla consisted of one primary papilla and a few smaller secondary papillae. Lenticular papillae were distributed on the torus linguae. The larger papillae were arranged in two parallel lines medially whereas the smaller papillae were laterally located. Most of the fungiform papillae were found on the lateral margins of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. These papillae were small and round. Intra-epithelial taste buds were located on the dorsal surface of each papilla. The vallate papillae were arranged in two rows on each rim of the torus linguae. Each round- and flat-shaped vallate papilla was surrounded by a prominent gustatory groove and an annular pad. A few taste buds were observed in the lateral epithelium of the papillae. The keratinization of the covering stratified squamous epithelium of the mechanical lingual papillae was relatively thicker than those of the gustatory papillae. The lingual papillae of the Bactrian camel exhibited some different characteristics from other domestic ruminants. These morphological characteristics of the tongue of the Bactrian camel might have evolved to assist the camel in prehension and manipulating of the inorganic stiff plants that grow in its environment and therefore might relate to the feed and feeding habits of the animal.

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