Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Bacteriol. 2001 Aug;183(15):4551-61.

Mechanism of chloride elimination from 3-chloro- and 2,4-dichloro-cis,cis-muconate: new insight obtained from analysis of muconate cycloisomerase variant CatB-K169A.

Author information

  • 1Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.


Chloromuconate cycloisomerases of bacteria utilizing chloroaromatic compounds are known to convert 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate to cis-dienelactone (cis-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide), while usual muconate cycloisomerases transform the same substrate to the bacteriotoxic protoanemonin. Formation of protoanemonin requires that the cycloisomerization of 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate to 4-chloromuconolactone is completed by protonation of the exocyclic carbon of the presumed enol/enolate intermediate before chloride elimination and decarboxylation take place to yield the final product. The formation of cis-dienelactone, in contrast, could occur either by dehydrohalogenation of 4-chloromuconolactone or, more directly, by chloride elimination from the enol/enolate intermediate. To reach a better understanding of the mechanisms of chloride elimination, the proton-donating Lys169 of Pseudomonas putida muconate cycloisomerase was changed to alanine. As expected, substrates requiring protonation, such as cis,cis-muconate as well as 2- and 3-methyl-, 3-fluoro-, and 2-chloro-cis,cis-muconate, were not converted at a significant rate by the K169A variant. However, the variant was still active with 3-chloro- and 2,4-dichloro-cis,cis-muconate. Interestingly, cis-dienelactone and 2-chloro-cis-dienelactone were formed as products, whereas the wild-type enzyme forms protoanemonin and the not previously isolated 2-chloroprotoanemonin, respectively. Thus, the chloromuconate cycloisomerases may avoid (chloro-)protoanemonin formation by increasing the rate of chloride abstraction from the enol/enolate intermediate compared to that of proton addition to it.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk