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Biochemistry. 2001 Jul 10;40(27):8009-17.

Role of metal ions in catalysis by enolase: an ordered kinetic mechanism for a single substrate enzyme.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA.


Spectroscopic and kinetic methods have been used to explore the roles of divalent metal ions in the enolase-catalyzed dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA). Enolase requires 2 equiv of metal ion per active site for maximal activity. Previous crystallographic studies [Larsen, T. M., Wedekind, J. E., Rayment, I., and Reed, G. H. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 4349-4358] showed that both magnesium ions coordinated to the carboxylate group of the substrate/product-a scheme consistent with metal ion assistance in formation of the enolate intermediate. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data with 17O-labeled forms of phosphoenolpyruvate show that Mn(2+), bound at the lower affinity site, coordinates to one carboxylate oxygen and one phosphate oxygen of the substrate. These observations are fully consistent with the crystallographic data. Plots of activity versus log [metal ion] are bell-shaped, and the inhibitory phases of the profiles have been previously attributed to binding of metal ions at ancillary sites on the enzyme. However, the activation profiles and measurements of 2H kinetic isotope effects support an ordered kinetic mechanism wherein binding of 2-PGA precedes binding of the second metal ion, and release of the second metal ion occurs prior to departure of phosphoenolpyruvate. High concentrations of metal ion lead to inhibition in the ordered mechanism by interfering with product release. The 2H kinetic isotope effect is diminished in the inhibitory phases of the metal ion activation profiles in a manner that is consistent with the predominantly ordered mechanism. Zn(2+) gives lower maximal activity than Mg(2+), apparently due to slow release of Zn(2+) from the product complex. Addition of imidazole increases the maximal rate apparently by accelerating the release of Zn(2+) from the enzyme.

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