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Science. 2001 Jun 29;292(5526):2447-51.

Graded materials for resistance to contact deformation and damage.

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  • 1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA.


The mechanical response of materials with spatial gradients in composition and structure is of considerable interest in disciplines as diverse as tribology, geology, optoelectronics, biomechanics, fracture mechanics, and nanotechnology. The damage and failure resistance of surfaces to normal and sliding contact or impact can be changed substantially through such gradients. This review assesses the current understanding of the resistance of graded materials to contact deformation and damage, and outlines future research directions and possible applications for graded materials.

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