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Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 Jun 18;11(12):1533-40.

Fluorescent pigments of the retinal pigment epithelium and age-related macular degeneration.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.


The major hydrophobic fluorophore of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is A2E, a pyridinium bis-retinoid derived from all-trans-retinal and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. The accumulation of fluorophores such as A2E is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease associated with the deterioration of central vision and a leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Recent chemical and biological studies have provided insight into the synthesis and biosynthesis of A2E, the spectroscopic properties of this pigment, and the role of A2E and RPE cell death.

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