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J Appl Physiol. 1975 Apr;38(4):681-7.

Lung mechanics in hypervolemic pulmonary edema.

Abstract

Extravascular thermal volume of the lung (ETVL) is a double indicator dilution technique of use in measuring pulmonary edema. ETVL and lung mechanics measurements were followed to find a less invasive monitor of pulmonary edema than the double indicator dilution technique. Pulmonary edema was induced by overloading the dogs' circulation with dextran. Phases of overload were defined on the basis of a previous electron microscopic study (Noble et al., Can. Anesthetists Soc. J. 21:275, 1974) of lung biopsies relating anatomic changes to physiologic measurements of ETVL and central blood volume (CBV). Congestion occurred when CBV was elevated and ETVL was not, interstitial edema when ETVL was elevated but smaller than 60% above control and alveolar edema when ETVL greater than 85% above control. Once the dogs were in alveolar edema, they were mechanically ventilated with 4, 8, 12, and 16 cmH2O end-tidal pressure (CPPV). Mean functional residual capacity (FRC) for all 15 dogs did not change up to the time CPPV was applied. Pulmonary resistance did not rise until alveolar edema was present. Once in pulmonary edema, lung compliance always fell as lung water increased. In individual dogs, the compliance fall was directly proportional to the rising lung water. However, the variations in slope and beginning point among dogs made it difficult to predict the amount of lung water from dynamic compliance values. PaO2 fell markedly in alveolar edema as a result of a widened A-a gradient. CPPV did not decrease lung water but did increase FRC and PaO2.

PMID:
1141099
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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