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J Neurooncol. 2001 Feb;51(3):265-76.

Animal models of cell cycle dysregulation and the pathogenesis of gliomas.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA. hollande@mskcc.org

Abstract

Mutations in gliomas, for the most part, fall into two main categories. The first category of mutations affects genes that produce proteins which activate signal transduction pathways downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors; the second category disrupts the pathways leading to cell cycle arrest. Cell cycle arrest pathways normally maintain cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, preventing inappropriate proliferation. The role of disregulation of these pathways in tumor formation is currently the focus of many investigations. Studies carried out with astrocytes and other cell types indicate that these pathways may also function in maintenance of appropriate chromosome number and differentiated phenotype, and in acquisition of senescence. Genetically defined mouse models of gliomagenesis have been helpful in increasing our understanding of how cell cycle arrest pathways cooperate with alterations in signal transduction pathways to provoke tumor formation in many cell types, including glial cells. Various strategies for experimental cell cycle arrest disruption show minimal or no formation of gliomas. In contrast, gliomas are generated with a number of strategies that enhance signal transduction downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors. Experimental disruption of the cell cycle arrest pathways is required for gliomagenesis in some of these models, but not in others. Furthermore in some cases, although not required for gliomagenesis, disruption of the cell cycle arrest pathways appears to enhance glioma formation. The results of these mouse model experiments imply a potentially complex role for cell cycle arrest disruption in human gliomagenesis.

PMID:
11407597
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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