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Health Psychol. 2001 May;20(3):196-207.

The influence of school environment and self-regulation on transitions between stages of cigarette smoking: a multilevel analysis.

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  • 1Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


In this research, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to address how school context influences the likelihood of transitioning between stages of cigarette smoking as well as modifies the individual-level risk factor of self-regulation. Survey data were collected from 25,186 middle and high school students attending 38 public schools in Kentucky. Results show that students are less likely to increase use in schools with higher levels of teacher discipline and faculty involvement. The analyses of the multi-level interactions between self-regulation and school context reveal that students possessing low emotional regulation are more likely to initiate experimental smoking in schools with poor levels of discipline and involvement than similar types of students in schools with higher levels of these characteristics. This study illustrates how psychological risk factors for substance use may vary across social environments.

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