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J Orthod. 2001 Jun;28(2):159-68.

Background considerations to facial aesthetics.

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  • 1Orthodontic Department, Norman Rowe Maxillofacial Unit, Queen Mary's University Hospital, Roehampton Lane, London SW15 5PN, UK.


This paper examines the nature of our objectives in attempting to improve facial appearance. Questions are addressed concerning the basis for any collective agreement on "improvement" and the nature of an agreed "ideal", including an exploration of the reasons for its existence. The discussion focuses on the concept of "averageness", as well as supplementary hypotheses. Finally, the origins and validity of contemporary clinical guidelines are addressed.

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  • Averageness as the ideal. [J Orthod. 2002]
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