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J Virol. 2001 Jul;75(13):5812-22.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-induced GRO-alpha production stimulates HIV-1 replication in macrophages and T lymphocytes.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Divisions of Infectious Diseases, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0640, USA.


We examined the early effects of infection by CCR5-using (R5 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) and CXCR4-using (X4 HIV) strains of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) on chemokine production by primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). While R5 HIV, but not X4 HIV, replicated in MDM, we found that the production of the C-X-C chemokine growth-regulated oncogene alpha (GRO-alpha) was markedly stimulated by X4 HIV and, to a much lesser extent, by R5 HIV. HIV-1 gp120 engagement of CXCR4 initiated the stimulation of GRO-alpha production, an effect blocked by antibodies to CXCR4. GRO-alpha then fed back and stimulated HIV-1 replication in both MDM and lymphocytes, and antibodies that neutralize GRO-alpha or CXCR2 (the receptor for GRO-alpha) markedly reduced viral replication in MDM and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Therefore, activation of MDM by HIV-1 gp120 engagement of CXCR4 initiates an autocrine-paracrine loop that may be important in disease progression after the emergence of X4 HIV.

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