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Oncogene. 2001 Apr 12;20(16):2044-9.

Haploid loss of Ki-ras delays mammary tumor progression in C3 (1)/SV40 Tag transgenic mice.

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  • 1Laboratory of Cell Regulation and Carcinogenesis, Division of Basic Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, MD 20892, USA.


We have previously demonstrated that amplification and overexpression of the Ki-ras gene is associated with mammary tumor progression in C3(1)/SV40Tag transgenic mice (Liu et al., 1998). To further evaluate the functional significance of the Ki-ras proto-oncogene in mammary cancer development, in vivo studies were conducted to examine the effect of Ki-ras gene dosage on tumor progression. The lack of one normal Ki-ras allele C3(1)/SV40Tag transgenic mice resulted in significantly delayed mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) formation as well as in a decreased number of mammary gland carcinomas. However, despite the retardation of tumor development by reduced Ki-ras gene dosage, overall survival was only modestly affected. This appears to be due to several factors including significant mammary tumor growth associated with Ki-ras gene amplification and over-expression that occurs during the advanced stage of oncogenesis in mice carrying either one or two normal Ki-ras alleles. The retardation of tumor progression due to the haploid loss of Ki-ras did not appear to be related to accelerated apoptosis, or a reduced rate of cell proliferation at the tumor stages examined. These data strongly suggest that the gene dosage of Ki-ras affects tumor promotion at an early stage of mammary tumor progression in this SV40 Tag-induced model of mammary oncogenesis.

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