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J Biol Chem. 2001 Jul 13;276(28):26526-33. Epub 2001 May 14.

Interaction of gamma 1-syntrophin with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta. Regulation of nuclear localization by PDZ interactions.

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  • 1Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Center for Neuromuscular Disease, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada.


Syntrophins are modular adapter proteins that link ion channels and signaling proteins to dystrophin and its homologues. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library using the PDZ domain of gamma 1- syntrophin, a recently identified brain-specific isoform, yielded overlapping clones encoding the C terminus of diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), an enzyme that converts diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid. In biochemical assays, the C terminus of DGK-zeta, which contains a consensus PDZ-binding motif, was found to be necessary and sufficient for association with gamma 1-syntrophin. When coexpressed in HeLa cells, DGK-zeta and gamma 1-syntrophin formed a stable complex that partitioned between the cytoplasm and nucleus. DGK-zeta translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus, a process negatively regulated by protein kinase C phosphorylation. We found that DGK-zeta recruits gamma 1-syntrophin into the nucleus and that the PDZ-binding motif is required. Disrupting the interaction altered the intracellular localization of both proteins; DGK-zeta accumulated in the nucleus, whereas gamma 1-syntrophin remained in the cytoplasm. The level of endogenous syntrophins in the nucleus of HeLa cells also reflected the amount of nuclear DGK-zeta. In the brain, DGK-zeta and gamma 1-syntrophin were colocalized in cell bodies and dendrites of cerebellar Purkinjie neurons and other neuronal cell types, suggesting that their interaction is physiologically relevant. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments from brain extracts and cells suggest that DGK-zeta, gamma 1-syntrophin, and dystrophin form a ternary complex. Collectively, our results suggest that gamma 1-syntrophin participates in regulating the subcellular localization of DGK-zeta to ensure correct termination of diacylglycerol signaling.

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