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J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2001 May;18(5):1186-91.

Characterization of alpha-phase soft proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides.

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  • 1Department of Materials and Technology, Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (Technical University), Zelenograd, Russia.


Waveguides in LiNbO3 are realized by a soft proton exchange (SPE) process with use of a melt of stearic acid highly diluted by lithium stearate. No phase transitions are formed when alpha-phase waveguides are obtained by SPE. The alpha-phase presents the same crystalline structure as that of pure LiNbO3 crystal, and it maintains the excellent nonlinear and electro-optical properties of the bulk material. The kinetics of the SPE method is studied by the use of secondary-ion mass spectrometry and prism-coupling techniques. The hydrogen effective diffusion coefficient as well as the self-diffusion coefficients of H+ and Li+ ions are determined as a function of the proton-exchange temperature for X-cut LiNbO3.

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