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J Virol. 2001 May;75(10):4594-603.

Recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (B/HPIV3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G and F proteins can be used to achieve simultaneous mucosal immunization against RSV and HPIV3.

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  • 1Laboratory of Infectious Disease, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


Recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (rB/HPIV3), a recombinant bovine PIV3 (rBPIV3) in which the F and HN genes were replaced with their HPIV3 counterparts, was used to express the major protective antigens of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in order to create a bivalent mucosal vaccine against RSV and HPIV3. The attenuation of rB/HPIV3 is provided by the host range restriction of the BPIV3 backbone in primates. RSV G and F open reading frames (ORFs) were placed under the control of PIV3 transcription signals and inserted individually into the rB/HPIV3 genome in the promoter-proximal position preceding the nucleocapsid protein gene. The recombinant PIV3 expressing the RSV G ORF (rB/HPIV3-G1) was not restricted in its replication in vitro, whereas the virus expressing the RSV F ORF (rB/HPIV3-F1) was eightfold restricted compared to its rB/HPIV3 parent. Both viruses replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract of hamsters, and each induced RSV serum antibody titers similar to those induced by RSV infection and anti-HPIV3 titers similar to those induced by HPIV3 infection. Immunization of hamsters with rB/HPIV3-G1, rB/HPIV3-F1, or a combination of both viruses resulted in a high level of resistance to challenge with RSV or HPIV3 28 days later. These results describe a vaccine strategy that obviates the technical challenges associated with a live attenuated RSV vaccine, providing, against the two leading viral agents of pediatric respiratory tract disease, a bivalent vaccine whose attenuation phenotype is based on the extensive host range sequence differences of BPIV3.

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