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J Neuroimmunol. 2001 May 1;116(1):62-73.

Endothelin-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 modulation in ischemia and human brain-derived endothelial cell cultures.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.


Brain tissue damage due to ischemia/reperfusion has been shown to be caused, in part, by activated macrophages infiltrating into the post-ischemic brain. Using the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) mouse model, this study demonstrated that, in vivo, both endothelin-1 (Et-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, and the macrophage chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant factor-1 (MCP-1) are induced in ischemia. Further studies, using human brain-derived endothelial cells (CNS-EC), showed that in vitro, Et-1 can directly stimulate MCP-1 mRNA expression and MCP-1 protein; and this Et-1-induced MCP-1 production is mediated by the ET(A) receptor. Inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta, functioned additively and synergistically, respectively, with Et-1 to increase this MCP-1 production. Partial elucidation of the signal transduction pathways involved in Et-1-induced MCP-1 production demonstrated that protein kinase C-, but not cAMP-dependent pathways are involved. These data demonstrate that Et-1, functioning as an inflammatory peptide, increased levels of MCP-1, suggesting a mechanism for chemokine regulation during ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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