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Inhal Toxicol. 2001 May;13(5):359-76.

A hybrid computational fluid dynamics and physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for comparison of predicted tissue concentrations of acrylic acid and other vapors in the rat and human nasal cavities following inhalation exposure.

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  • 1Toxicology Department, Rohm and Haas Company, 727 Norristown Road, Spring House, PA 19477, USA. cfrederick@rohmhaas.com


To assist in interspecies dosimetry comparisons for risk assessment of the nasal effects of organic acids, a hybrid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) dosimetry model was constructed to estimate the regional tissue dose of inhaled vapors in the rat and human nasal cavity. Application to a specific vapor would involve the incorporation of the chemical-specific reactivity, metabolism, partition coefficients, and diffusivity (in both air and tissue phases) of the vapor. This report describes the structure of the CFD-PBPK model and its application to a representative acidic vapor, acrylic acid, for interspecies tissue concentration comparisons to assist in risk assessment. By using the results from a series of short-term in vivo studies combined with computer modeling, regional nasal tissue dose estimates were developed and comparisons of tissue doses between species were conducted. To make these comparisons, the assumption was made that the susceptibilities of human and rat olfactory epithelium to the cytotoxic effects of organic acids were similar, based on similar histological structure and common mode of action considerations. Interspecies differences in response were therefore assumed to be driven primarily by differences in nasal tissue concentrations that result from regional differences in nasal air flow patterns relative to the species-specific distribution of olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. The results of simulations with the seven-compartment CFD-PBPK model suggested that the olfactory epithelium of the human nasal cavity would be exposed to tissue concentrations of acrylic acid similar to that of the rat nasal cavity when the exposure conditions are the same. Similar analysis of CFD data and CFD-PBPK model simulations with a simpler one-compartment model of the whole nasal cavities of rats and humans provides comparable results to averaging over the compartments of the seven-compartment model. These results indicate that the general structure of the hybrid CFD-PBPK model applied in this assessment would be useful for target tissue dosimetry and interspecies dose comparisons for a wide variety of vapors. Because of its flexibility, this CFD-PBPK model is envisioned to be a platform for the construction of case-specific inhalation dosimetry models to simulate in vivo exposures that do not involve significant histopathological damage to the nasal cavity.

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