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J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2001 Apr;12(4):507-15.

Value of three-dimensional US for optimizing guidance for ablating focal liver tumors.

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  • 1Department of Radiology, University of California Medical Center, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.



To determine if three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US), by nature of its ability to simultaneously evaluate structures in three orthogonal planes and to study relationships of devices to tumor(s) and surrounding anatomic structures from any desired orientation, adds significant additional information to real-time 2D US used for placement of devices for ablation of focal liver tumors.


Sixteen patients underwent focal ablation of 23 liver tumors during two intraoperative cryoablation (CA) procedures, three intraoperative radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures, 11 percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) procedures, and six percutaneous RFA procedures. After satisfactory placement of the ablative device(s) with 2D US guidance, 3D US was used to reevaluate adequacy to device position. Information added by 3D US and resultant alterations in device deployment were tabulated.


3D US added information in 20 of 22 (91%) procedures and caused the operator to readjust the number or position of ablative devices in 10 of 22 (45%) of procedures. Specifically, 3D US improved visualization and confident localization of devices in 13 of 22 (59%) procedures, detected unacceptable device placement in 10 of 22 (45%), and determined that 2D US had incorrectly predicted device orientation to a tumor in three of 22 (14%).


Compared to conventional 2D US, 3D US provides additional relationship information for improved placement and optimal distribution of ablative agents for treatment of focal liver malignancy.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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