Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Trends Immunol. 2001 Apr;22(4):217-23.

The expanding world of co-stimulation: the two-signal model revisited.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.


The crucial role for CD28, its homolog CTLA-4 and their binding partners B7-1 and B7-2 in the generation of effective T-cell responses has been well documented. Recently, two new pairs of the CD28/B7 families were identified. The ability of these molecules to regulate T-cell expansion and effector function and the dynamic integration of the co-stimulatory and T-cell receptor signals are just beginning to be explored. Understanding these processes will be crucial for designing clinically relevant approaches to manipulate the adaptive immune system.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk