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J Urol. 2001 Apr;165(4):1172-6.

The use of an artificial urinary sphincter in women with type III incontinence and a negative Marshall test.

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  • 1Service D'Urologie-Andrologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nimes, Montpellier, France.



We evaluate the efficacy of the AMS 800 artificial urinary sphincter in women with type III incontinence.


We enrolled 207 women with genuine stress incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Primary inclusion criterion was a negative Marshall test. A modified surgical procedure was used to implant the AMS 800 through an abdominal approach, with placement of the cuff around the bladder neck between the periurethral fascia and vagina. Followup data were available for 206 women, including 179 with nonneurogenic and 27 with neurogenic bladders (mean followup 3.9 years).


There were 12 (5.9%) explantations due to the prosthesis either through an erosion, extrusion or both that were necessary. The only significant risk factor for explantation was perioperative injury. This injury resulted in 8 explantations in 49 patients compared with 4 in 155 who did not have such injuries (p = 0.0016). Of the 190 patients with working devices continence was achieved in 88.7% (49 of 168) and 81.8% (18 of 22) of those with nonneurogenic and neurogenic bladders, respectively. Social continence (slight leakage but no pad use) was reported by 7.7% (13 of 168) and 9.1% (2 of 22) of patients in the nonneurogenic and neurogenic groups, respectively. The remaining patients reported leakage and pad use.


The AMS 800 can be used successfully to treat women with genuine stress incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency. The modified surgical approach resulted in fewer perioperative injuries and, consequently, a low explantation rate. Women with genuine stress incontinence, a low urethral closure pressure and negative Marshall test indicating severe intrinsic sphincter deficiency are potential candidates for artificial urinary sphincter implantation.

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