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J Pediatr. 2001 Mar;138(3):349-54.

Echocardiographic outcome of infants treated as newborns with inhaled nitric oxide for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine and The Children's Hospital, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the cardiovascular outcome of a group of term newborns treated with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure with associated persistent pulmonary hypertension.

STUDY DESIGN:

We performed echocardiographic evaluations in 40 survivors treated for severe neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure. Each of the 40 had at least 2 follow-up echocardiograms at 3 or 6 and 24 months. These studies were compared with echocardiograms done in infants in a normal, age-matched control group.

RESULTS:

Three of 31 infants met echocardiographic criteria for pulmonary hypertension at the 3-month examination. Two of the 3 had associated structural heart disease (1 with an atrial septal defect and 1 with a ventricular septal defect). At 24 months only 1 patient had pulmonary hypertension. This infant had an atrial septal defect that was surgically closed shortly after the 24-month echocardiogram because of the pulmonary hypertension. Group comparisons of 3- and 24-month echocardiographic variables showed no differences between the study and control groups. In the 31 infants in whom serial studies were completed, expected age-related changes were demonstrated between the 3- and 24-month examinations.

CONCLUSIONS:

The incidence of residual pulmonary hypertension in infants treated as newborns for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure is low. The group at highest risk is those with structural heart disease.

PMID:
11241041
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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