Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Plant Cell. 2001 Feb;13(2):255-72.

Domain swapping and gene shuffling identify sequences required for induction of an Avr-dependent hypersensitive response by the tomato Cf-4 and Cf-9 proteins.

Author information

  • 1Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom.


The tomato Cf-4 and Cf-9 genes confer resistance to infection by the biotrophic leaf mold pathogen Cladosporium. Their protein products induce a hypersensitive response (HR) upon recognition of the fungus-encoded Avr4 and Avr9 peptides. Cf-4 and Cf-9 share >91% sequence identity and are distinguished by sequences in their N-terminal domains A and B, their N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in domain C1, and their LRR copy number (25 and 27 LRRs, respectively). Analysis of Cf-4/Cf-9 chimeras, using several different bioassays, has identified sequences in Cf-4 and Cf-9 that are required for the Avr-dependent HR in tobacco and tomato. A 10-amino acid deletion within Cf-4 domain B relative to Cf-9 was required for full Avr4-dependent induction of an HR in most chimeras analyzed. Additional sequences required for Cf-4 function are located in LRRs 11 and 12, a region that contains only eight of the 67 amino acids that distinguish it from Cf-9. One chimera, with 25 LRRs that retained LRR 11 of Cf-4, induced an attenuated Avr4-dependent HR. The substitution of Cf-9 N-terminal LRRs 1 to 9 with the corresponding sequences from Cf-4 resulted in attenuation of the Avr9-induced HR, as did substitution of amino acid A433 in LRR 15. The amino acids L457 and K511 in Cf-9 LRRs 16 and 18 are essential for induction of the Avr9-dependent HR. Therefore, important sequence determinants of Cf-9 function are located in LRRs 10 to 18. This region contains 15 of the 67 amino acids that distinguish it from Cf-4, in addition to two extra LRRs. Our results demonstrate that sequence variation within the central LRRs of domain C1 and variation in LRR copy number in Cf-4 and Cf-9 play a major role in determining recognition specificity in these proteins.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk